William Lovett: Autobiography (7)

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    "To the Honourable the Commons of Great Britain and Ireland.  The Petition of the undersigned Members of the Working Men's Association and others sheweth―

    "That the only rational use of the institutions and laws of society is justly to protect, encourage, and support all that can be made to contribute to the happiness of all the people.

    "That, as the object to be obtained is mutual benefit, so ought the enactment of laws to be by mutual consent.

    "That obedience to laws can only be justly enforced on the certainty that those who are called on to obey them have had, either personally or by their representatives, the power to enact, amend, or repeal them.

    "That all those who are excluded from this share of political power are not justly included within the operation of the laws; to them the laws are only despotic enactments, and the legislative assembly from whom they emanate can only be considered parties to an unholy compact, devising plans and schemes for taxing and subjecting the many.

    "That the universal political right of every human being is superior and stands apart from all customs, forms, or ancient usuage; a fundamental right not in the power of man to confer, or justly to deprive him of.

    "That to take away this sacred right from the person and to vest it in property, is a wilful perversion of justice and common sense, as the creation and security of property are the consequences of society—the great object of which is human happiness.

    "That any constitution or code of laws, formed in violation of men's political and social rights, are not rendered sacred by time nor sanctified by custom.

    "That the ignorance which originated, or permits their operation, forms no excuse for perpetuating the injustice; nor can aught but force or fraud sustain them, when any considerable number of the people perceive and feel their degradation.

    "That the intent and object of your petitioners are to present such facts before your Honourable House as will serve to convince you and the country at large that you do not represent the people of these realms; and to appeal to your sense of right and justice as well as to every principle of honour, for directly making such legislative enactments as shall cause the mass of the people to be represented; with the view of securing the greatest amount of happiness to all classes of society.

    "Your Petitioners find, by returns ordered by your Honourable House, that the whole people of Great Britain and Ireland are about 24 millions, and that the males above 21 years of age are 6,023,752, who, in the opinion of your petitioners, are justly entitled to the elective right.

    "That according to S. Wortley's return (ordered by your Honourable House) the number of registered electors, who have the power to vote for members of Parliament, are only 839,519, and of this number only 8½ in 12 give their votes.

    "That on an analysis of the constituency of the United Kingdom, your petitioners find that 331 members (being a majority of your Honourable House) are returned by one hundred and fifty-one thousand four hundred and ninety-two registered electors!

    "That comparing the whole of the male population above the age of 21 with the 151,492 electors, it appears that 1-40 of them, or 1-160 of the entire population, have the power of passing all the laws in your Honourable House.

    "And your petitioners further find on investigation, that this majority of 331 members are composed of 163 Tories or Conservatives, 134 Whigs and Liberals, and only 34 who call themselves Radicals; and out of this limited number it is questionable whether 10 can be found who are truly the representatives of the wants and wishes of the producing classes.

    "Your petitioners also find that 15 members of your Honourable House are returned by electors under 200; 55 under 300; 99 under 400; 121 under 500; 150 under 600; 196 under700; 214 under 800; 240 under 900; and 256 under 1,000; and that many of these constituencies are divided between two members.

    "They also find that your Honourable House, which is said to be exclusively the people's or the Commons House, contain two hundred and five persons who are immediately or remotely related to the Peers of the Realm.

    "Also that your Honourable House contains 1 marquess, 7 earls, 19 viscounts, 32 lords, 25 right honourables, 52 honourables, 63 baronets, 13 knights, 3 admirals, 7 lord-lieutenants, 42 deputy and vice-lieutenants, 1 general, 5 lieutenant-generals, 9 major-generals, 32 colonels, 33 lieutenant-colonels, 10 majors, 49 captains in army and navy, 10 lieutenants, 2 cornets, 58 barristers, 3 solicitors, 40 bankers, 33 East India proprietors, 13 West India proprietors, 52 place-men, 114 patrons of church livings having the patronage of 274 livings between them; the names of whom your petitioners can burnish at the request of your Honourable House.

    "Your petititioners therefore respectfully submit to your Honourable House that these facts afford abundant proofs that you do not represent the numbers or the interests of the millions; but that the persons composing it have interests for the most part foreign or directly opposed to the true interests of the great body of the people.

    "That perceiving the tremendous power you possess over the lives, liberty and labour of the unrepresented millions—perceiving the military and civil forces at your command—the revenue at your disposal—the relief of the poor in your hands—the public press in your power, by enactments expressly excluding the working classes alone—moreover, the power of delegating to others the whole control of the monetary arrangements of the Kingdom, by which the labouring classes may be silently plundered or suddenly suspended from employment—seeing all these elements of power wielded by your Honourable House as at present constituted, and fearing the consequences that may result if a thorough reform is not speedily had recourse to, your petitioners earnestly pray your Honourable House to enact the following as the law of these realms, with such other essential details as your Honourable House shall deem necessary:—


    "That the United Kingdom be divided into 200 electoral districts dividing, as nearly as possible, an equal number of inhabitants; and that each district do send a representative to Parliament.


    "That every person producing proof of his being 21 years of age, to the clerk of the parish in which he has resided six months, shall be entitled to have his name registered as a voter.  That the time for registering in each year be from the 1st of January to the 1st of March.


    "That a general election do take place on the 24th of June in each year, and that each vacancy be filled up a fortnight after it occurs.  That the hours for voting be from six o'clock in the morning till six o'clock in the evening.


    "That there shall be no property qualification for members; but on a requisition, signed by 200 voters, in favour of any candidate being presented to the clerk of the parish in which they reside, such candidate shall be put in nomination.  And the list of all the candidates nominated throughout the district shall be stuck on the church door in every parish, to enable voters to judge of their qualification.


    "That each voter must vote in the parish in which he resides.  That each parish provide as many balloting boxes as there are candidates proposed in the district; and that a temporary place be fitted up in each parish church for the purpose of secret voting.  And, on the day of election, as each voter passes orderly on to the ballot, he shall have given to him, by the officer in attendance, a balloting ball, which he shall drop into the box of his favourite candidate.  At the close of the day the votes shall be counted, by the proper officers, and the numbers stuck on the church doors.  The following day the clerk of the district and two examiners shall collect the votes of all the parishes throughout the district, and cause the name of the successful candidate to be posted in every parish of the district.


    "That the members do take their seats in Parliament on the first Monday in October next after their election, and continue their sittings every day (Sundays excepted) till the business of the sitting is terminated, but not later than the 1st of September.  They shall meet every day (during the Session) for business at 10 o'clock in the morning, and adjourn at 4.  And every member shall be paid quarterly out of the public treasury £400 a year.  That all electoral officers shall be elected by universal suffrage.

    "By passing the foregoing as the law of the land, you will confer a great blessing on the people of England; and your petitioners, as in duty bound, will ever pray."





    "Whereas, to insure, in as far as it is possible by human forethought and wisdom, the just government of the people, it is necessary to subject those who have the power of making the laws to a wholesome and strict responsibility to those whose duty it is to obey them when made.

    "And, whereas, this responsibility is best enforced through the instrumentality of a body which emanates directly from, and is itself immediately subject to, the whole people, and which completely represents their feelings and their interests.

    "And, whereas, the Commons House of Parliament now exercises, in the name and on the supposed behalf of the people, the power of making the laws, it ought, in order to fulfil with wisdom and with honesty the great duties imposed on it, to be made the faithful and accurate representation of the people's wishes, feelings, and interests.


    "That, from and after the passing of this Act, every male inhabitant of these realms be entitled to vote for the election of a member of Parliament; subject, however, to the following conditions:—

    "1. That he be a native of these realms, or a foreigner who has lived in this country upwards of two years, and been naturalized.

    "2. That he be twenty-one years of age.

    "3. That he be not proved insane when the lists of voters are revised.

    "4. That he be not undergoing the sentence of the laws at the time when called upon to exercise the electoral right.

    "5. That his electoral rights be suspended for bribery at elections, or for personation, or for forgery of election certificates, according to the penalties of this Act.


    "I. Be it enacted, that for the purpose of obtaining an equal representation of the people in the Commons House of Parliament, the United Kingdom be divided into 300 electoral districts. [p459]

    "II. That each such district contain, as nearly as may be, an equal number of inhabitants.

    "III. That the number of inhabitants be taken from the last census, and as soon as possible after the next ensuing decennial census shall have been taken, the electoral districts be made to conform thereto.

    "IV. That each electoral district be named after the principal city or borough within its limits.

    "V. That each electoral district return one representative to sit in the Commons House of Parliament.

    "VI. That the Secretary of State for the Home Department shall appoint three competent persons as Commissioners, and as many Sub-Commissioners as may be necessary for settling the boundaries of each of the 300 electoral districts, and so on from time to time, whenever a new decennial census of the people be taken.

    "VII. That the necessary expenses of the said commissioners, sub-commissioners, clerks, and other persons employed by them in the performance of their duties, be paid out of the public treasury.


    "Be it enacted, that for the purpose of procuring an accurate registration of voters, for finally adjudicating in all cases of objections made against persons claiming to be registered, for receiving the nominations of Members of Parliament and Returning Officers, and declaring their election; as well as for conducting and superintending all matters connected with registration, nomination, and election, according to the provisions of this Act the following officers be appointed:―

    "1. Returning Officers for each electoral district.

    "2. Deputy-Returning Officers for each district.

    "3. A Registration Clerk for every parish containing number of inhabitants, or for every two or more parishes if united for the purpose of this Act.


    "I. Be it enacted, that at the first general election after the passing of this Act, a Returning Officer be elected for every electoral district throughout the kingdom, and so in like manner at the end of every year.

    "II. That, at the end of every such period, the returning officer for each district be nominated in like manner, and elected at the same time as the Member of Parliament for the district; he shall be eligible to be re-elected.

    "III. That vacancies occasioned by the death, removal, or resignation of the returning officer, shall in like manner be filled up as vacancies for Members of Parliament, for the unexpired term of the year.

    "IV. That every returning officer shall appoint a deputy-returning officer, for the day of election, for every balloting place within his district, and in all cases be responsible for the just fulfilment of the duties of such deputies.

    "V. That it be the duty of the returning officer to appoint a registration clerk for every parish within his district containing ???? [Ed.―left blank] number of inhabitants, or for every two or more parishes if united for the purposes of this Act; and that in all cases he be responsible for the just fulfilment of the duties of such clerks.

    "VI. That he also see that proper balloting places, and such other erections as may be necessary, be provided by each parish (or any number that may be united) and that the balloting-boxes be made and provided according to the provisions of this Act.

    "VII. That he receive the lists of voters from all the parishes in his district, in which lists shall be marked or specified the names of those persons who have been objected to by the registration clerks or any other persons.

    "VIII. That between the first of April and the first of May in each year, he shall hold open Courts of Adjudication at such a number of places within his district as he may deem necessary, of which courts (place and time of meeting) he shall cause due notice to be given in each parish of the district, and at the same time invite all persons who have made objections and who have been objected to.  And, after hearing the statements that may be made by both parties, he shall finally adjudicate whether the voters' names be placed on the register or not.

    "IX. That the returning officer shall then cause to be made out alphabetical lists of all the registered voters in all the parishes within his district; which lists, signed and attested by himself, shall be used at all the elections for the district.  Such lists to be sold to the public at reasonably low prices.

    "X. That the returning officer receive all nominations for the members of his district, as well as for the returning officer of his district, and shall give public notice of the same according to the provisions of this Act; he shall also receive from the Speaker of the House of Commons the orders for any new election, in case of the death or resignation of the member of the district, as well as the orders to superintend and conduct the election of any other district, in case of the death or resignation of the returning officer of such district.

    "XI. That the returning officer shall also receive the returns from all the parishes within his district, on the day of election; and on the day following the election he shall proclaim the state of the ballot, as directed by this Act, and perform the several duties appertaining to his office, as herein made and provided.

    "XII. That the returning officer be paid for fulfilling the duties of his office, the sum of ???? [Ed.―left blank] per annum, as hereinafter mentioned.

    "XIII. That, upon a petition being presented to the House of Commons by at least one hundred qualified electors of the district, against any returning officer of the same, complaining of corruption in the exercise of his office, or of incapacity, such complaints shall be inquired into by a committee of the House, consisting of seven members; and, on their report being read, the members present shall then determine whether such returning officer be or be not guilty, or he be or not be incapacitated.

    "XIV. That, for conducting the first elections after the passing of this Act, a returning officer for each district be temporarily appointed by the Secretary of State, to perform the duties prescribed by this Act.  He shall resign his office as soon as the new one is appointed, and be paid as hereinafter mentioned.  See Penalties.


    "I. Be it enacted, that a deputy returning officer be appointed by the district returning officer to preside at each balloting place on the day of election, such deputy to be subject and responsible to his authority, as well as to the provisions of this Act.

    "II. That it be the duty of the deputy returning officer to provide a number of competent persons, not exceeding ????, [Ed.―left blank], to aid him in taking the ballot, and for performing the necessary business thereof.

    "III. That the deputy returning officer shall see that proper registration lists are provided, and that the ballot begin at six o'clock in the morning precisely, and end at six o'clock in the afternoon of the same day.

    "IV. That the deputy returning officer, in the presence of the agents of the candidates, examine and seal the balloting-boxes previously to the commencement of the balloting; he shall in like manner declare the number of votes for each candidate, and shall cause a copy of the same, signed by himself, to be forwarded to the returning officer of the district, and another copy to the registration clerk of the parish.

    "V. That the deputy returning officer be paid for his services as hereinafter mentioned.  See Penalties.


    "I. Be it enacted, that a Registration Clerk be appointed by the district returning officer for every parish within his district containing inhabitants; or for every two or more parishes that may be united for the purposes of this Act; such clerk to be responsible to his authority, as well as to the provisions of this Act.

    "II. That for the purpose of obtaining a correct registration of all the voters in each electoral district, the registration clerk of every parish as aforesaid throughout the kingdom shall, on or before the 1st of February in each year, take or cause to be taken round to every dwelling-house, poor-house, or union-workhouse, in his parish, a printed notice of the following form:—

    "Mr. John Jones, you are hereby required, within six days from the date hereof, to fill up this list with the names of all male inhabitants of your house, of 21 years of age and upwards; stating their respective ages, and the time they have resided with you; or, in neglect thereof, to forfeit the sum of one pound for every name omitted.

A. B., Registration Clerk.           





Time of

John Jones

6, Upper North Place

21 years

3 months

    "N.B.—This list will be called for at the expiration of six days from this date.

    "III. That, at the expiration of six days, as aforesaid, the registration clerk shall collect, or cause to be collected, the aforesaid lists, and shall cause to be made out from them an alphabetical list of all persons who are of the proper age and residence to qualify them as voters, according to the provisions of this Act.

    "IV. That if the registration clerk shall have any just reason to believe that the names, ages, or time or residence of any person inserted in the aforesaid list are falsely entered, or not in accordance with the provisions of this Act, he shall not refuse to insert them in his list of voters, but he shall write the words 'objected to' opposite such names; and so in like manner against the names of every person he may have just reason to consider ineligible, according to the provisions of this Act.

    "V. That on or before the 8th of March in each year, the registration clerk shall cause the aforesaid alphabetical list of voters to be stuck against all church and chapel doors, market-houses, town-halls, session-houses, poorhouses, union-workhouses, and such other conspicuous places as he may deem necessary, from the 8th of March till the 22nd.  He shall also cause a copy of such list to lie at his office, to be perused by any person without a fee, at all reasonable hours; and copies of the said list shall be sold to the public at a reasonably low price.

    "VI. That, on or before the 25th of March, the registration clerk shall take, or cause to be taken, a copy of the aforesaid list of voters to the returning officer of his district, which list shall be signed by himself, and be presented as a just and impartial list, according to his judgment, of all persons within his parish who are eligible according to their claims, as well as of all those who have been objected to by himself or other persons.

    "VII. That the registration clerk shall attend the Court of Adjudication, according to the notice he shall receive from the returning officer, to revise his list, and shall perform all the duties of his office as herein provided.

    "VIII. That the registration clerk be paid for his services in the manner hereinafter mentioned.


    "I. Be it enacted, that every householder, as well as every person occupying or having charge of a dwelling-house, poor-house, or union-workhouse, who shall receive a notice from the registration clerk as aforesaid, shall cause the said notice to be correctly filled up with the names, ages, and time of residence of every male inmate or inhabitant of his or her house, of twenty-one years of age and upwards, within six days of the day of the date of such notice, and shall carefully preserve the same till it is called for by the registration clerk, or his proper officer.

    "II. That when the list of voters is made out from these notices, and stuck on the church doors and places aforesaid, any person who finds his name not inserted in the list, and who believes he is duly qualified as a voter, shall, on presenting to the registration clerk a notice in the following form, have his name added to the list of voters:

    "I, John Jones, carpenter, residing at―――in the district of―――being twenty-one years of age, and having resided at the above place during the last three months, require to be placed on the list of voters as a qualified elector for the said district.

    "III. That any person who is qualified as a voter to any electoral district, and shall have removed to any other parish within the said district, on presenting to the registration clerk of the parish he then resides in, his voter's certificate as proof of this, or the written testimony of any registration clerk who has previously registered him, he shall be entitled to be placed on the list of voters as aforesaid.

    "IV. That if an elector of any parish in the district have any just grounds for believing that any person disqualified by this Act has been put upon any parish register within the said district, he may, at any reasonable hour, between the 1st and the 20th day of March, cause the following notices to be delivered, the one at the residence of the registration clerk, and the other at the residence of the person objected to; and the registration clerk shall, in like manner, send notice of the grounds of objection to all persons he may object to, as aforesaid:—

"To the Registration Clerk.

    "I, William Smith, elector of the parish of ―――in the district of ――― object to A. B. being on the register of voters, believing him to be disqualified.

"To the person objected to.

    "Mr. A. B. of ――― I, William Smith, elector of the parish of ――― in the district of ――― object to your name being on the register of voters for the following reasons:—(here state the reasons) and I will support my objections by proofs before the Returning Officer of the District.

                                                                           "Dated this             day, etc.

    "V. That if the person thus objecting neglect to attend the court of the returning officer at the proper time, to state his objections, he shall be fined ten shillings for every such neglect, the same to be levied on his goods and chattels, provided he is not prevented from attending by sickness or accident; in which case his medical certificate, or a certificate signed by ten voters certifying such fact, shall be forwarded to the returning officer, who shall then determine whether the claim to be put on the register be allowed or not.

    "VI. That if the person objected to fails to attend the court of the returning officer at the proper time, to substantiate his claim, his name shall be erased from the register, provided he is not prevented by sickness or accident; in which case a certificate shall be forwarded, and the returning officer shall determine as before directed.

    "VII. That if it should be proved before the returning officer, in his open Court of Adjudication, that any person has frivolously or vexatiously objected to anyone being placed on the list of voters, such person objecting shall be fined twenty shillings and expenses, the same to be levied on his goods and chattels, and paid to the person objected to.

    "VIII. That, as early as possible after the lists are revised as aforesaid, the returning officer shall cause a copy of the same to be forwarded to every registration clerk within his district.

    "IX. That the registration clerk of every parish shall then correctly copy from such lists the name, age, and residence of every qualified elector within his parish or parishes, into a book made for that purpose, and shall place a number opposite each name.  He shall then within ――― days, take, or cause to be taken, to all such electors, a voter's certificate of the following form, the number on which shall correspond with the number in the aforesaid book:—

    "No 123. This is to certify that James Jones, of――― is eligible to vote for one person to be returned to Parliament (as well as for the Returning Officer) for the district ――― of for one year from the date hereof.
                                                              "Registration Clerk.

    "X. That if any person lose his voter's certificate by fire, or any other accident, he shall not have a new certificate till the next registration; but on the day of any election, if he can establish his identity on the testimony of two witnesses, to the satisfaction of the registration clerk, as being the qualified voter described in the registration book, he shall be allowed to vote.

    "XI. That the returning officer is hereby authorized and commanded to attach any small parishes within his district for the purposes of this Act, and not otherwise; and in like manner to unite all extra-parochial places to some adjacent parish.  See Penalties.


    "I. Be it enacted, that for the purpose of guarding against too great a number, who might otherwise be heedlessly proposed, as well as for giving time for the electors to inquire into the merits of the persons who may be nominated for Members of Parliament, as well as for Returning Officers, that all nominations be taken as hereinafter directed.

    "II. That for all general elections of Members of Parliament a requisition of the following form, signed by at least one hundred qualified electors of the district, be delivered to the returning officer of the district between the first and tenth day of May in each year; and that such requisition constitute the nomination of such persons as a candidate for the district:—

    "We, the undersigned electors of the district of――― recommend A. B. of――― as a fit and proper person to represent the people of this district in the Commons House of Parliament, the said A. B. being qualified to be an elector according to the provisions of this Act.
                                                          "Dated, etc.

    "III. That the returning officer of every electoral district shall, on or before the 13th of May in each year, cause a list of all the candidates thus nominated to be stuck up against all church and chapel doors, market-houses, town-halls, session-houses, poor-houses, and union-workhouses, and such other conspicuous places within the district as he may deem necessary.

    "IV. That, whenever a vacancy is occasioned in any district by the death, resignation, or other cause, of the Member of Parliament, the returning officer of that district shall, within three days after his orders from the Speaker of the House of Commons, give notice thereof in all the parishes of his district in the manner described for giving notices, and he shall at the same time request all nominations to be made as aforesaid, within ten days from the receipt of his order, and shall also appoint the day of election within eighteen days from the receipt of such order from the Speaker of the House of Commons,

    "V. That if, from any circumstances, no person has been nominated as a candidate for the district on or before the 10th of May, persons may then be nominated in the manner described as aforesaid at any time previous to the 20th of May, but not after that date.

    "VI. That, at the first election after the passing of this Act, and at the expiration of every year, the nomination of candidates for the Returning Officer be made in the same manner as for Members of Parliament, and nominations for vacancies that may occur in like manner.

    "VII. That if two or more persons are nominated as aforesaid for members to serve in Parliament for the district, the returning officer shall, at any time, between the 15th and 31st of May (Sundays excepted) appoint such times and places (not exceeding  ???? [Ed.―left blank]), as he shall think most convenient to the electors of the district for the candidates to appear before them, then and there to explain their views and solicit the suffrages of the electors.

    "VIII. That the returning officer see that the places above described be convenient for the purpose, and that as many such erections be put up as may be necessary; the same to be paid for by the returning officer, and charged in his account as hereinafter mentioned.

    "IX. That, for the purpose of keeping good order and public decorum, the returning officer either take the chair at such meetings himself, or appoint a deputy for that purpose.

    "X. That, provided only one candidate be proposed for Member of Parliament for the district by the time herein before mentioned, the returning officer do cause notice to be given, as hereinafter mentioned, that such a candidate is elected a member for the district; and if only one candidate be proposed for the Returning Officer, he shall in like manner be declared duly elected.

    "XI. That no other qualification shall be required than the choice of the electors, according to the provisions of this Act; providing that no persons, excepting the cabinet ministers, be eligible to serve in the Commons House of Parliament who are in the receipt of any emolument derivable from any place or places held under Government, or of retired allowances arising therefrom.


    "I. Be it enacted, that a general election of Members of Parliament, for the electoral districts of the United Kingdom, do take place on the first Monday in June in each year; and that all vacancies, by death or otherwise, shall be filled up as nearly as possible within eighteen days after they occur.

    "II. That a general election of Returning Officers for all the districts take place at the expiration of every three years on the first Monday in June, and at the same time.  Members of Parliament are to be elected; and that all vacancies be filled up within eighteen days after they occur.

    "III. That every person who has been registered as aforesaid, and who has a voter's certificate, shall have the right of voting in the district in which he has been registered, and in that only; and of voting for the Member of Parliament for that district, and the Returning Officer for the district, and for those only.

    "IV. That, for the purpose of taking the votes of the qualified electors, the parish officer in every parish of the district (or in every two or more parishes if united for the purposes of this Act) shall cause proper places to be provided, so as to admit of the arrangements described in Schedule A, and so constructed (either permanently or temporarily as they may think proper) that the votes may be taken with due despatch, and so as to secure the elector while voting from being inspected by any other person.

    "V. That the parish officers of every parish in the district provide a sufficient number of balloting-boxes, made after a model described in Schedule B (or made on one plan by persons appointed to make them, as was the case with weights and measures), and none but such boxes, duly certified, shall be used.

    "VI. That, immediately preceding the commencement of the balloting, each ballot-box shall be opened by the deputy returning officer (or otherwise examined as the case may be), in the presence of an agent appointed by each candidate, and shall then be sealed by him and by the agents of the candidates, and not again be opened until the balloting has finally closed, when notice shall be given to such of the agents of the candidates as may then be present, to attend to the opening of the boxes and ascertaining the number of votes for each candidate.

    "VII. That the deputy returning officer preside in the front of the ballot-box, and see that the balloting is conducted with strict impartiality and justice; and that the various clerks, assistants, and parish constables properly perform their respective duties, and that strict order and decorum be preserved among the friends of the candidates, as well as among all persons employed in conducting the election; and he is hereby authorized and empowered to cause all persons to be taken into custody who interrupt the proceedings of the election, seek to contravene the provisions of this Act, or fail to obey his lawful authority.

    "VIII. That during the time the balloting is going on, two agents of each candidate may be in the space fronting the ballot-box, and immediately behind the deputy returning officer, in order that they may see that the election is fairly conducted; such persons to be provided by the deputy returning officer with cards of admission, and to pass in and out by the entrance assigned them.

    "IX. That the registration clerk of every parish in the district, who has been appointed for the purposes of registration, be at the balloting place, in the station assigned him, previously to the commencement of the balloting, and see that no person pass on to the balloting place till he has examined his certificate, and seen that it corresponds with the registration list.

    "X. That the parish constables and the officers stationed at the entrance of the balloting place, shall not permit any person to enter unless he shows his voter's certificate, except the persons employed in conducting the election, or those persons who have proved the loss of their voter's certificate.

    "XI. That at the end of every year, or whenever the Returning Officer is elected at the same time as the Member for the district, a division shall be made in the balloting places, and the boxes and balloting so arranged as to ensure the candidates the strictest impartiality and justice, by preventing the voter from giving two votes for either of the candidates.

    "XII. That on the day of election, the balloting commence at six o'clock in the forenoon and terminate at six o'clock in the afternoon of the same day.

    "XIII. That when any voter's certificate is examined by the registration clerk, and found to be correct, he shall be allowed to pass on to the next barrier, where a balloting-ball shall be given him by the person appointed for that purpose; he shall then pass on to the balloting-box, and, with all due dispatch, shall put the balloting-ball into the box of the candidate he wishes to vote for, after which he shall, without delay, leave the room by the door assigned for the purpose.  See Schedules A and B.

    "XIV. That, at the close of the balloting, the deputy returning officer, in the presence of the agents of the candidates and other persons present, shall break open the seals of the balloting-boxes, and ascertain the number for each candidate; he shall then cause copies of the same to be publicly posted outside the balloting place; and immediately forward (by a trusty messenger) a copy of the same, signed by himself and the agents present, to the returning officer of the district; he shall then deliver a similar copy to the registration clerk, who shall carefully preserve the same, and produce it if necessary.

    "XV. That the persons employed as assistants, for inspecting the certificates and attending to the balloting, be paid as hereinafter mentioned.

    "XVI. That all the expense of registration, nominations and election, as aforesaid, together with the salaries of the Returning Officers, Registration Clerk, Assistants, Constables, and such other persons as may be necessary, as well as the expense of all balloting places, balloting-boxes, hustings, and other necessaries for the purposes of this Act, be paid out of an equitable district rate, which a District Board, composed of one Parochial Officer chosen by each of the parishes in the district, or for any two or more parishes if united for the purposes of this Act, are hereby empowered and commanded to levy on all householders within the district.

    "XVII. That all expenses necessary for the purposes of this Act incurred within the district be paid by the district board as aforesaid, or their treasurer; that the salaries of all officers and assistants required for the purposes of this Act be fixed and paid by the said board, according to the expenses and duties of the various localities.

    "XVIII. That all accounts of receipts and expenditure for electoral purposes shall be kept distinct, and be audited by auditors appointed by the district board, as aforesaid; copies of which accounts shall be printed for the use of the respective parishes in the district.

    "XIX. That all canvassing for Members of Parliament, as well as for Returning Officers, is hereby declared to be illegal, and meetings for that purpose during the balloting on the day of election, are hereby also declared to be illegal.  See Penalties.


    "I. Be it enacted, that the Members of the House of Commons, chosen as aforesaid, shall meet on the first Monday in June in each year, and continue their sittings from time to time as they may deem it convenient, till the first Monday in June following, when the next new Parliament shall be chosen; they shall be eligible to be re-elected.

    "II. That, during an adjournment, they be liable to be called together by the executive in cases of emergency.

    "III. That a register be kept of the daily attendance of each member, which, at the close of the session, shall be printed as a sessional paper, showing how the members have attended.


    "I. Be it enacted, that every Member of the House of Commons be entitled, at the close of the session, to a writ of expenses on the Treasury, for his legislative duties in the public service, and shall be paid ???? [Ed.―left blank] per annum. [p474]


    "I. Be it enacted, that if any person cause himself to be registered in more than one electoral district, and vote in more than one such district, upon conviction thereof before any two justices of the peace within either of such districts, he shall incur for the first offence the penalty of three months' imprisonment, and for the second offence twelve months' imprisonment.

    "II. That any person who shall be convicted as aforesaid of wilfully neglecting to fill up his or her notice within the proper time, or of leaving out the name of any inmate in his or her notice, shall for the first offence incur the penalty of one pound for every name omitted; and for the second offence incur the penalty of three months' imprisonment, and be deprived of his electoral rights for three years.

    "III. That any person who shall be convicted as aforesaid of forging any name, age, or time of residence on any notice, shall for the first offence incur the penalty of three months' imprisonment, and for the second offence three months' imprisonment, and be deprived of his elective rights for three years.

    "IV. That any person who shall be convicted as aforesaid, of having in any manner obtained the certificate of an elector other than his own, and of having voted or attempted to vote by means of such false certificate, shall for the first offence incur the penalty of three months' imprisonment, and for the second offence three months' imprisonment, and be deprived of his elective rights for three years.

    "V. That any person who shall be convicted as aforesaid, of having forged a voter's certificate, or of having forged the name of any person to any certificate; or having voted or attempted to vote on such forged certificate; knowing such to have been forged, shall for the first offence incur the penalty of three months' imprisonment, and for the second offence three months' imprisonment, and be deprived of his elective rights for three years.

    "VI. That any person who shall be convicted as aforesaid, of having forged, or caused to be forged, the names of any voters to a requisition nominating a Member of Parliament or a Returning Officer, shall for the first offence incur the penalty of three months' imprisonment, and for the second offence three months' imprisonment, and be deprived of his elective rights for three years.

    "VII. That any person who shall be convicted as aforesaid of bribery, in order to secure his election, shall be subject for the first offence to incur the penalty of two years' imprisonment, and for the second offence shall be imprisoned two years, and be deprived of his elective rights for five years.

    "VIII. That any Agent of any Candidate, or any other person, who shall be convicted as aforesaid, of bribery at any election, shall be subject for the first offence to incur the penalty of twelve months' imprisonment, and for the second offence twelve months' imprisonment, and be deprived of his elective rights for five years.

    "IX. That any person who shall be convicted as aforesaid, of going from house to house, or place to place, to solicit in any way votes in favour of any candidate for Parliament or Returning Officer, after the nomination as aforesaid, shall for the first offence incur the penalty of one months' imprisonment, and for the second offence two months.

    "X. That any person who shall be convicted as aforesaid of calling together, or causing an election meeting to be held in any district during the day of election, shall for the first offence incur the penalty of three months' imprisonment, and for the second offence six months.

    "XI. That any person who shall be convicted as aforesaid, of interrupting the balloting, or the business of the election, shall incur the penalty of three months' imprisonment for the first offence, and six months for the second.

    "XII. That if any messenger, who may be sent with the state of the ballot to the returning officer, or with any other notice, shall wilfully delay the same, or in any way by his consent or conduct cause the same to be delayed, on conviction as aforesaid, shall incur the penalty of six months' imprisonment.

    "XIII. That any Returning Officer who shall be convicted as aforesaid, of having neglected to appoint proper officers as directed by this Act, to see that proper balloting places and balloting-boxes are provided, and to give the notices and perform the duties herein required of him, shall forfeit for each case of neglect the sum of £20.

    "XIV. That if any Returning Officer be found guilty of bribery or corrupt practices in the execution of the duties herein assigned to him, he shall incur the penalty of twelve months' imprisonment, and be deprived of his elective rights for five years.

    "XV. That if any Deputy Returning Officer be convicted as aforesaid of having neglected to perform any of the duties herein assigned him, he shall forfeit for such neglect three pounds.

    "XVI. That if any Deputy Returning Officer be convicted as aforesaid of bribery and corrupt practices in the execution of the duties of his office, he shall incur the penalty of six months' imprisonment, and the deprivation of his elective rights for three years.

    "XVII. That if any Registration Clerk be convicted as aforesaid of having neglected to perform any of the duties herein assigned him, he shall forfeit for each such neglect five pounds.

    "XVIII. That if any registration Clerk be convicted as aforesaid of bribery and corrupt practices in the execution of the duties of his office, he shall incur the penalty of six months' imprisonment, and the deprivation of his elective rights for three years.

    "XIX. That if the Parochial Officers in any parish neglect or refuse to comply with any of the provisions of this Act, they shall forfeit for every such neglect the sum of £50, or in default of payment, twelve months' imprisonment.

    "XX. That all fines and penalties incurred under the provisions of this Act be recoverable before any two justices of the peace, within the district where the offence shall have been committed, and in default of payment, the said justices shall issue their warrant of distress against the goods and chattels of the offender; or in default of sufficient distress, he shall be imprisoned according to the provisions of this Act.

    "That all Acts and parts of Acts relating to registration, nominations, or elections of Members of Parliament, as well as the duration of Parliament and sittings of members, are hereby repealed."




    "Unto the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in Parliament assembled, the Petition of the undersigned, their suffering countrymen.

    "That we, your petitioners, dwell in a land whose merchants are noted for enterprise, whose manufacturers are very skilful, and whose workmen are proverbial for their industry.

    "The land itself is goodly, the soil rich, and the temperature wholesome; it is abundantly furnished with the materials of commerce and trade; it has numerous and convenient harbours; in facility of internal communication it exceeds all others.

    "For three-and-twenty years we have enjoyed a profound peace.

    "Yet, with all these elements of national prosperity, and with every disposition and capacity to take advantage of them, we find ourselves overwhelmed with public and private suffering.

    "We are bowed down under a load of taxes; which, notwithstanding, fall greatly short of the wants of our rulers; our traders are trembling on the verge of bankruptcy; our workmen are starving; capital brings no profit, and labour no remuneration; the home of the artificer is desolate, and the warehouse of the pawnbroker is full; the workhouse is crowded, and the manufactory is deserted.

    "We have looked on every side, we have searched diligently in order to find out the causes of a distress so sore and so long continued.

    "We can discover none in nature, or in Providence.

    "Heaven has dealt graciously by the people; but the foolishness of our rulers has made the goodness of God of none effect.

    "The energies of a mighty kingdom have been wasted in building up the power of selfish and ignorant men, and its resources squandered for their aggrandisement.

    "The good of a party has been advanced to the sacrifice of the good of the nation; the few have governed for the interest of the few, while the interest of the many has been neglected, or insolently and tyrannously trampled upon.

    "It was the fond expectation of the people that a remedy for the greater part, if not for the whole, of their grievances, would be found in the Reform Act of 1832.

    "They were taught to regard that Act as a wise means to a worthy end; as the machinery of an improved legislation, when the will of the masses would be at length potential.

    "They have been bitterly and basely deceived.

    "The fruit which looked so fair to the eye has turned to dust and ashes when gathered.

    "The Reform Act has effected a transfer of power from one domineering faction to another, and left the people as helpless as before.

    "Our slavery has been exchanged for an apprenticeship to liberty, which has aggravated the painful feeling of our social degradation, by adding to it the sickening of still deferred hope.

    "We come before your Honourable House to tell you, with all humility, that this state of things must not be permitted to continue; that it cannot long continue without very seriously endangering the stability of the throne and the peace of the kingdom; and that if by God's help and all lawful and constitutional appliances, an end can be put to it, we are fully resolved that it shall speedily come to an end.

    "We tell your Honourable House that the capital of the master must no longer be deprived of its due reward; that the laws which make food dear, and those which by making money scarce, make labour cheap, must be abolished; that taxation must be made to fall on property, not on industry; that the good of the many, as it is the only legitimate end, so must it be the sole study of the Government.

    "As a preliminary essential to these and other requisite changes; as means by which alone the interests of the people can be effectually vindicated and secured, we demand that those interests be confided to the keeping of the people.

    "When the State calls for defenders, when it calls for money, no consideration of poverty or ignorance can be pleaded in refusal or delay of the call.

    "Required as we are, universally, to support and obey the laws, nature and reason entitle us to demand, that in the making of the laws, the universal voice shall be implicitly listened to.

    "We perform the duties of freemen; we must have the privileges of freemen.


    "The suffrage to be exempt from the corruption of the wealthy, and the violence of the powerful, must be secret.

    "The assertion of our right necessarily involves the power of its uncontrolled exercise.


    "The connection between the representatives and the people, to be beneficial must be intimate.

    "The legislative and constituent powers, for correction and for instruction, ought to be brought into frequent contact.

    "Errors, which are comparatively light when susceptible of a speedy popular remedy, may produce the most disastrous effects when permitted to grow inveterate through years of compulsory endurance.

    "To public safety as well as public confidence, frequent elections are essential.


    "With power to choose, and freedom in choosing, the range of our choice must be unrestricted.

    "We are compelled, by the existing laws, to take for our representatives, men who are incapable of appreciating our difficulties, or who have little sympathy with them; merchants who have retired from trade, and no longer feel its harassings; proprietors of land who are alike ignorant of its evils and their cure; lawyers, by whom the honours of the senate are sought after only as means of obtaining notice in the courts.

    "The labours of a representative, who is sedulous in the discharge of his duty, are numerous and burdensome.

    "It is neither just, nor reasonable, nor safe, that they should continue to be gratuitously rendered.

    "We demand that in the future election of members of your Honourable House, the approbation of the constituency shall be the sole qualification; and that to every representative so chosen shall be assigned, out of the public taxes, a fair and adequate remuneration for the time which he is called upon to devote to the public service.

    "Finally, we would most earnestly impress on your Honourable House, that this petition has not been dictated by any idle love of change; that it springs out of no inconsiderate attachment to fanciful theories; but that it is the result of much and long deliberation, and of convictions, which the events of each succeeding year tend more and more to strengthen.

    "The management of this mighty kingdom has hitherto been a subject for contending factions to try their selfish experiments upon.

    "We have felt the consequences in our sorrowful experience—short glimmerings of uncertain enjoyment swallowed up by long and dark seasons of suffering.

    "If the self-government of the people should not remove their distresses, it will at least remove their repinings.

    "Universal suffrage will, and it alone can, bring true and lasting peace to the nation; we firmly believe that it will also bring prosperity.

    "May it therefore please your Honourable House to take this our petition into your most serious consideration; and to use your utmost endeavours, by all constitutional means, to have a law passed, granting to every male of lawful age, sane mind, and unconvicted of crime, the right of voting for members of Parliament; and directing all future elections of members of Parliament to be in the way of secret ballot; and ordaining that the duration of Parliaments so chosen shall in no case exceed one year; and abolishing all property qualifications in the members; and providing for their due remuneration while in attendance on their Parliamentary duties.

    "And your petitioners, etc."


to R. H. Tawney's Introduction

1. Additional MSS., 27, 791, pp. 67, 241, quoted Hovell, The Chartist Movement, pp. 55-6.

2. Lovett, Life and Struggles, p. 33.

3. Life and Struggles, pp. 42-3 (Co-operation), 88-9 (Grand National Consolidated Trades Union), 93-9 (London Working Men's Association), 205-19 (Convention), 250-5 (National Association), 279-91 (Complete Suffrage Movement).

4. Ibid., p. 55.

5. Ibid., p. 67.

6. Ibid., p. 76.

7. Ibid., p. 77.

8. Ibid., pp, 160-7.

9. Life and Struggles, pp. 116-241, App. A and B.

10. W. F. P. Napier, Life and Opinions of Sir C. J. Napier, Vol. II.

11. Quoted Hovell, op. cit., p. 158.

12. Life and Struggles, p. 314.

13. Ibid., p. 343.

14. Ibid., pp. 330-6.

15. Ibid., pp. 376-9.

16. But Cartwright had advocated two of these, viz. payment of members and vote by ballot.

17. Life and Struggles, p. 74.

18. Bamford, Passages in the Life of a Radical.

19. Wallas, Life of Francis Place, p. 368.

20. Life and Struggles, p. 94.

21. Life and Struggles, p. 42.

22. Ibid., p. 122.

23. Wallas, Life of Francis Place, pp. 269-70

24. Hovell, op. cit., p. 62.

25. Life and Struggles, p. 95.

26. Wallas, op. cit., pp. 370-1.

27. Life and Struggles, p. 111.

28. Life and Struggles, pp. 218-19.

29. Ibid., p. 197.

30. Wallas, op. cit., p. 370.

31. Life and Struggles, pp. 114-17.

32. But he tried to keep paper out of it, see Hovel, op. cit., pp. 160-1.

33. Life and Struggles, pp. 102-4.

34. Ibid., pp. 138-50.

35. Ibid., pp. 178-84.

36. Ibid., pp. 162-7.

37. Ibid., pp. 100-102.

38. Ibid., pp. 105-9.

39. Ibid., pp. 109-12.

40. Ibid., pp. 154-62.

41. Ibid., pp. 186-94, and pp. 195-203.

42. Life and Struggles, pp. 186-94, and pp. 195-203.

43. Ibid., pp. 304-5.

44. Ibid., pp. 319-25.

45. Ibid., pp. 336-9.

46. Ibid., p. 266.

47. For the views and influence of these writers, see Beer, History of British Socialism.

48. Life and Struggles, p. 127.

49. Ibid., p. 74.

50. Life and Struggles, p. 127.

51. Ibid., pp. 92-3.

52. Ibid., p. 104.

53. Ibid., pp. 214-15.

54. Ibid., p. 119.

55. Life and Struggles, p. 119.

56. Ibid., 272.

57. Ibid., pp. 119-20.

58. Life and Struggles, p. 110.

59. Ibid., p. 217.

60. Ibid., p. 97.

61. Ibid., p. 120.

62. Life and Struggles, pp. 90-9.

63. Ibid., p. 141.

64. Ibid., pp. 140-1.

65. Ibid., p. 142.

66. Wallas, op. cit., pp. 338-9.

67. Life and Struggles, pp. 137-8.

68. Owen, First Essay on the Formation of Character.

69. Life and Struggles, p. 35.

70. Ibid., p. 95.

71. Hovell, op.cit., pp. 209-11.

72. Ibid., pp. 204-8.

73. Life and Struggles, pp. 137-150.

74. Ibid., p. 155.

75. Life and Struggles, p. 160.

76. Ibid., pp. 154-162.

77. Ibid., p. 90.

78. Hovell, op. cit., p. 170. [Ed.―unable to find a reference to Beniowski here; the first in my edition of Hovell is on p.176]

79. Life and Struggles, p. 132.

80. Ibid., p. 160.

81. Ibid., p. 307.

82. Ibid., p. 311.

83. Life and Struggles, p. 449.



p39. This correspondence we thought it well to burn when I was drawn for the militia, fearing it might get into strange hands.

p47.    Since this was written numerous co-operative associations have been started on the old plan.

p55.    Mr. Henry Hetherington, the great champion of the unstamped press, was a native of London, and born in Compton Street, Soho, in the year 1792.  I became acquainted with him some time before he commenced the publication of the Poor Man's Guardian, an event which gave rise to the unstamped warfare, and which gave birth to the cheap literature we so much enjoy. It was his firm determination and unflinching courage, that no punishment could daunt, that caused that warfare to be successful, though many others helped, and suffered in the fray.
    Mr. James Watson, a seller of the unstamped, and publisher of many liberal works, was a native of New Malton, in Yorkshire, and was born on the 21st September, 1799.  I first met with him at the Old Co-operative Society Rooms, Red Lion Square.  He first came to town to take charge of Richard Carlisle's shop in Fleet Street, when the government prosecution was so hot against him for selling Paine's works.  I have taken part in many associations with him, and I know of no politician I could better repose confidence in.  Independent of his efforts and sacrifices in the cause of the unstamped, he rendered good service to the cause of progress by the great number of political and other useful works which he printed and published.
    Mr. John Cleave, bookseller and publisher, was I think about the same age as Hetherington, but the place of his birth I cannot now recollect.  He had been, I think, a sailor in early life, and had much of the sailor in his bearing.  He was also rude and bluff in his manner at times, but he had a warm and generous heart; always ready to aid the good cause, and to lend a helping hand to the extent of his means.  He laboured hard, and made great sacrifices in freeing the press from the stamps that fettered it.

p57.    The following sketch, drawn by an opponent—Blackwood's Magazine—will give some idea of Henry Hunt's treatment in the House of Commons:—"A comely, tall, rosy, white-headed mean-looking, well-gartered tradesman of, I take it, 60; nothing about him could detain the eye for a second, if one did not know who he was.  His only merits are his impudence and his voice, the former certainly first rate, the latter, as far as power goes, unique.  In vain do all sides of the house unite, cough, and shuffle, and groan, and Door, door! and Bar, bar! to drown him; in vain Spoke, spoke!  Mr. Speaker!  Order there!  I rise!  Spoke!  Question, question!  Chair, chair!  In vain is it all; he pauses for a moment, until the unanimous clamour of disgust is at its height, and then, re-pitching his notes, apparently without an effort, lifts his halloo as clear and distinct above the storm, as ever ye heard a minster bell tolling over the racket of a village wake."

p58.    Mr. George Rogers, a well-intentioned man, notwithstanding.

p60.    The first of the Penny Papers for the People was addressed to the People of England, and dated October 1st, 1830.  This was followed by papers of a larger form addressed to the Duke of Wellington; to the King; the Archbishop of Canterbury, etc.  The first number of the Poor Man's Guardian was dated December 25th, 1830, and the last December 20th, 1835.

p62.    Among others Mr, Abel Heywood, since then a Mayor of Manchester.

p63.    This penny stamp necessitated another agitation to be got up, several years after, to get rid of it. In this agitation Mr. Richard Moore, Mr. Cobden, Mr. Villiers, Mr. Wilson, Mr. Bainbridge, and others took the leading part; Mr. Dobson Collett acted as their Secretary. To the same body of gentlemen we also owe the repeal of the Duty on paper,

p65.    "A person of the name of Thomas Colley, employed by the Solicitor of the Stamp Office, admitted that he had been the means of convicting seventy persons for selling unstamped publications; and that he had received a pound for each at the Stamp Office,"—Morning Chronicle.

p80.    Some idea may be formed of the causes that contributed to the cholera and other diseases of that period, when I state on the authority of the medical officers of the Holborn Union, in their report, that the London cesspools, if united, would form a channel ten miles long, fifty feet wide, and six feet deep ; and that they supplied to the River Thames daily 7,000 loads of poisonous filth that might have been converted into the most valuable manure.

p87.    This was the speech of Thelwall over Hardy's grave, in Dunhill Fields' burying ground.

p96.    The persons who took more or less an active part in the London Working Men's Association were Messrs. Henry Hetherington, John Cleave, Richard Moore, James Watson, W. Lovett, Henry Vincent, Robert Hartwell, Henry Mitchell, William Hoare, George Tomey, John Rogers, John Gast, William Savage, Richard Cameron, Charles H. Neesom, Julian Harney, John Lawrence, James Lawrence, George Glashan, Wm. Cumming, John Damson, Arthur Dyson, Thomas Ireland, Thomas White, S. Calderara, Wm. Pearse, Wm. Isaacs, Wm. Dixon, James Jenkinson, Edward Thomas, John Jaffray, John Skelton, Wm. Moore, Daniel Binyon, Thomas Engall, Arthur Milner, Thomas Slater, Henry Lemon, R, Jameson, Thomas Thorne, Cowper Lacey, and others. (Ed.―see also W. J. Linton, "Who were the Chartists?"]

p102.    "The Address from the London Working Men's Association to their brothers in Belguim, has produced magnificent results.  In Brussels, Liege, and various other parts of Belgium, Working Men's Associations are established; they have founded two journals for the propagation of democracy, the one in French, called Le Radical, and the other in Flemish, entitled the Volk Frend, or Folk's Friend.  In France the publication of these mutual addresses, from the Working Men of Belgium and Britain, caused a great sensation.  The were republished there by the newspapers, both democratic an monarchical, the former propounding their principles as worthy imitation, and the latter denouncing them as anarchical and damnable."—The London Dispatch.

p116.    I have the original of the Plan by me.

p117.    My doubts in his sincerity, in this particular, have since been fully confirmed.  On Wednesday, June 11th, 1856, I met Mr. Swain ― a well known friend of Wm. Cobbett, who, in the course of conversation, informed me, that, shortly after our interview with O'Connell, Mr. Williams, the Member for Coventry, came into his shop in Fleet Street, and requested him, in a confidential manner, to warn the members of the Working Men's Association against O'Connell; as he had informed him, that he had signed our resolutions, and would get as many members as he could to sign them, for the purpose of frustrating the intentions of the Working Men's Association.  I may add that we had previously heard of this conversation through Mr. Swain's foreman, who had overheard the warning given, but now the whole particulars were given me, and confirmed by the principal.  Mr. Swain further said that this was the chief cause of O'Connell losing his seat for Dublin, the liberal electors being informed of this treachery.

p142.    If additional reasons are needed to prove that education ought to be free to all our people, and free also from religious squabbles, they are afforded by the contests continually taking place over the miserable abortion of Mr. Foster and his clerical allies.  A measure which has intensified religious feuds, and created religious antagonism in almost every village in the kingdom; the ruling sects in each, either trying to prevent the establishing of School Boards, or if established to obtain the mastery in them.  It has been a subject of constant dispute, because of religious teaching, and has engendered great bitterness among the poorest of our population who, with large families and scanty means, cannot afford the school fees, low as they may be.  Why, then, should we not have free schools for our people, and free also from religious teaching, so that all may labour harmoniously in the great work.  The advantages of free, or very cheap education, is seen in America, in Scotland, and other places.  This, given to the people of Scotland, has opened up to the poorest of them means of living and thriving in various parts of the world, which the uneducated of Ireland and England do not possess; and this defective state of education we owe to religious conflict, to selfish cliques, and to the want of a wise and just code.

p149.    Mr. Spurgeon—the popular preacher—in once addressing an audience on the subject of Education, spoke of a wonderful bottle belonging to his grandmother, which had a large apple within it, and which had often excited his childish wonder as to how so large an apple could enter the small neck of the bottle.  As he grew older, however, he found out that his grandmother must have put the bottle over the apple when it was very small, so that it grew to its large size within the bottle.  Hence he urged the necessity of putting children within the religious bottle when very young, and for rearing them up in the bottle, a course which his audience very generally approved of.  But when we have so many kinds of religious bottles in society, into which the proprietors of each all want to cram as many of the young and unreflecting as they can, and to rear them up in their own creed, and their own notions of religion, it would be well to ask Mr. Spurgeon and his disciples how they would like their own children to be crammed into the Catholic bottle, the Church bottle, or any other of their opponents' bottles?  As they would doubtlessly object to this, how much better would it be to defer all those kinds of religious notions till the child had acquired strength of mind to judge for itself.

p174.    I may here state that the first draft of the Bill, afterwards called the People's Charter, made provision for the suffrage of women, but as several members thought its adoption in the Bill might retard the suffrage of men, it was unfortunately left out.

p175.    See a copy of it in the Appendix B.

p177.    This was the Northern Star.—The following account of its origin is taken from a series of articles written by Mr. Robert Lowery, one of our convention, and published in the Temperance Weekly Record.  "Fergus, having lost his seat for Cork, and quarrelled with Daniel O'Connell, left the Irish agitation, and appeared at the Meetings of the English Radicals.  He went down into the factory districts, and, speaking to please, soon became popular.  J. Hobson, Mr. Hill, and others in Yorkshire, seeing the want of a newspaper, as an organ for the rising movement, had succeeded in raising some few hundreds of pounds, by shares, to establish one.  O'Connor persuaded them that they would not be able to get the necessary amount, and that the mixed authority of a committee would hamper the Editor, and render the paper inefficient.  He proposed that the shareholders should lend him the money raised, for which he would guarantee interest, and that he would find the rest of the capital, and commence the paper at once; and that Hobson should be the publisher and Hill the editor.  This was done, and the paper entitled the Northern Star.  But there is every reason to believe that at that time he had no capital, and that the money of the shareholders was the only money overinvested in the paper.  Fortunately for him it soon rose to a very large circulation, reaching at last to some 60,000 a week."

p178.    It was The Sun newspaper.

p200.    This passage was amended from my original draft, for the purpose of maintaining union; I doubted his sincerity then, and have had abundant proofs since.

p205.    See a copy of it in the Appendix.

p206.    Our friend Harney has since redeemed his past violence and folly, by his intelligent writings and moderation in the cause of right and justice.

p219.    This was James Brontere O'Brien's plan.

p221.    An instance of the extreme measures the middle classes were prepared to resort to at the first reform period was communicated to me by one of the principals engaged to carry it out.  When the Duke of Wellington was called to the ministry with the object, it was believed, of silencing the political unions and putting down the reform agitation, an arrangement was entered into between the leading reformers of the North and Midland Counties and those of London for seizing the wives and children of the aristocracy and carrying them as hostages into the North until the Reform Bill was passed.  My informant, Mr. Francis Place, told me that a thousand pounds were placed in his hands in furtherance of the plan, and for hiring carriages and other conveniences, a sufficient number of volunteers having prepared matters and held themselves in readiness.  The run upon the bank, however, having been effective in driving the duke from office, this extreme measure was not necessary.

p242.    His mother kept a greengrocer's shop, and when she went to market with her horse and cart she placed her little bag of money in one corner of it, behind the bags and baskets, and this being known by her unworthy son, he instructed the out-going thief to rob her, on condition of his sending him a portion of the money between the soles of a new pair of shoes, as shoes and articles of clothing were admitted.

p255.    If the number of persons who signed the National Petition belonged to such an association by paying a less sum even than a penny per week each person, they would be able to effect the following important objects every year:—



To erect eighty district halls, or normal or industrial
schools, at £3000 each
To establish seven hundred and ten circulating libraries at £20 each 14,200
To employ four missionaries (travelling expenses
included) at £200 per annum
To circulate twenty thousand tracts per week, at 15s. per
To printing, postages, salaries, etc.           700
Leaving for incidental expenses           120

p262.    With the exception, I believe, of Washington.

p264.    The persons who took, more or less, an active part in the National Association were the following:—Henry Hetherington, Wm. Lovett, John Cleave, Henry Vincent, Henry Mitchell, James Watson, John Collins, Richard Moore, James Happy, Charles H. Neesom, James Savage, H. B. Marley, Joseph Turner, Arthur Dyson, Stephen Wade, R. W. Woodward, George Bennett, Isaac F. Hallett, Charles Tapperell, C. H. Simmons, A. Morton, John Alexander, Charles Westerton, W. J. Linton, Benjamin Huggett, C. H. Elt, H. Beal, J. Peat, J. Newton, J. H. Parry, Win. Statham, John Statham, Wm. Launders, Thomas Wilson, J. Kesson, James Stansfeld, Sidney M. Hawkes, Wm. Shaer, Henry Moore, John King, Wm. Addiscott, R. McKenzie, George Cox, Abram Hooper, Richard Spur, G. Outtram, Thomas Scott, J. Jenkinson, Thomas Lovick, W. H. Prideaux, Henry Mills, John Mottram, James Lawrence, John Lawrence, Capt. Walhouse, John Bainbridge, Wm. Dell, John Parker, Henry Campkin, Thomas Donatty, J. J. West, J. Dobson Collett, T. Beggs, J. Cornfield, F. Rickards, Charles M. Schomberge, W. H. Ashurst, H. Taylor, J. Beasley, A. Davenport, Wm, Hyde, Wm, Crate, J. Tijoue, etc.

p267.    The Complete Suffrage Party.

p274.    This was in 1842.

p275.    The Representatives of the People, as described by the Morning Post, Jan. 18th, 1835:―
    "The most confused sounds, mysteriously blended, issued from all corners of the House . . . At repeated intervals a sort of drone-like humming, having almost the sound of a distant hand-organ, or bagpipes, issued from the back benches; coughing, sneezing, and ingeniously extended yawning, blended with other sounds, and producing a tout ensemble which we have never heard excelled in the House.  A single voice, from the ministerial benches, imitated very accurately the yelp of a kennelled hound . . . At one time you would have thought, from the rapidity with which they rose up and sat down again in their seats, that they had been trying some gymnastic experiments . . . One Honourable Member imitated the crowing of a cock so admirably that you could not have distinguished it from the performance of a real chanticleer.  Not far from the same spot issued sounds marvellously resembling the bleating of a sheep, blended occasionally with an admirable imitation of the braying of an ass.  Then there were coughing, yawning, and other vocal performances, in infinite variety, and in most discordant chorus."

p279.    I have since heard that this Memorial was first mooted at a meeting of the Anti-Corn-Law party.

p293.    It is here necessary to state that we were induced to engage Mr. Fox in consequence of a kind and generous offer made to our Association by a philanthropist, whom I shall designate A. B., that he would contribute £100 a year towards the lectures if the Association would give a like sum, a proposal which was readily agreed to.

p306.    This was his attack upon Turkey, which led to the Crimean War.

p341. "The testimonial this day presented to W
ILLIAM LOVETT is intended both as an expression of gratitude for public services, and of respect for private worth.  The Subscribers rejoice to feel that they cannot distinguish between the Patriot and the Man; but find that the selfsame qualities of integrity, purity, firmness, zeal, and benevolence, which have secured to WILLIAM LOVETT the lasting attachment of those who know him, have also been the characteristics of his political career.  Whether enduring the loss of his goods, for refusing to be coerced into military service; or that of his liberty, for protesting against the unconstitutional interference of the police with the people; whether founding the Working Men's Association, for the attainment of political rights, or the National Association, for the promotion of social improvement; whether embodying the principles of democracy, in the memorable document called the People's Charter, or sheaving the means of redemption in his work, entitled Chartism, a new Organization of the People; whether cultivating, by instruction, the intellectual and moral nature of destitute children, or by numerous addresses from the above-named Associations recommending Peace, Temperance, Justice, Love, and Union, to erring multitudes and nations; in labours which will make themselves known, by their results, to posterity, or in unrecorded scenes of friendly and domestic intercourse, WILLIAM LOVETT has been ever the same; and may this memorial now presented to him serve as an assurance that the feelings of his friends, admirers, and fellow-labourers in the cause of humanity are strong and unchanging, like the truth of his own character, public and private, by which those feelings have been produced.

    "It is the fervent wish of the Subscribers that his future life may be long, happy, and successful, as his past has been true, honourable, and beneficent.

    "Signed on behalf of the Subscribers,

"J. F. MOLLETT, Hon. Sec."

p343.    This was a political association, with apolitical objects similar to our own.

p359.    This was the year of the famine.

p367.    Mr. Cobden first pointed this out to Mr. Joseph Sturge, and he wished me to write an answer to it.

p372.    A third is prepared, but I have no means of printing it.

p392-1.    Since this was written the School Boards are gradually remedying this grievous evil.

p392-2.    Dr. Croly asserts, on good authority, that there are, in this metropolis, 16,000 children trained to crime, 15,000 men living by low gambling, 50,000 by constant thieving; 5,000 receivers of stolen goods, and 150,000 men and women subsisting by other disgraceful means.  There are also not fewer than 25,000 beggars; so that there are more than 250,000 persons in the London district, of all ages and sexes, who prey upon the honest and industrious part of the community.—The Builder, of June 16th, 1860.

p394-1.    Since this was written, I have read of one honest, outspoken bishop—Dr. Fraser, of Manchester.

p394-2.    According to their own returns, published in 1845, twenty-six of them divided between them £212,562, averaging £8,175 per annum—Standard of Freedom, 1849.

    "The Church property (said the Chancellor of the Exchequer) is worth £90,000,000"—The Daily News, Jan. 14th, 1874.

    According to returns made to Parliament in 1867, there had been £139,799 spent on the palaces of five bishops,

p395.   A few of the riches gathered by the Prelates of the Church of Ireland alone—Fowler, Archbishop of Dublin, died worth £150,000, Beresford, Archbishop of Tuam, £250,000; Agar, Archbishop of Cashel, £400,000; Stuart, Archbishop of Armagh, £300,000; Knox, Bishop of Derry, £100,000; Stopford, Bishop of Cork, £25,000 Percy, Bishop of Dromore, £40,000; Cleaver, Bishop of Ferns, £50,000; Bernard, Bishop of Limerick, £60,000; Hawkins, Bishop of Raphoe, £250,000; Porter, £250,000.  This large amount, of nearly two millions, over their luxurious living, was gleaned from such a poor country as Ireland.  The fortunes left by English Prelates are, I doubt not, still larger.

p396.    Popery has made rapid strides in England within a few years.  There are now said to be here 1893 Catholic Priests; 1453 Catholic Churches; 86 Monasteries; and 286 Convents.

p399.    Lord Chatham used to assert that we had a Popish Liturgy.

p400.    A B
ISHOP'S CHRISTIAN CHARITY.—Bishop Moriarty, of Ireland, in speaking of the heads of the Fenian Conspiracy, said:—"Oh! God's heaviest curse, His withering, blighting, blasting curse, is on them. I preached to you last Sunday on the eternity of hell's torments. Human reason was inclined to say that it is a hard word, and who can bear it? But when we look down into the fathomless depth of this infamy of the heads of the Fenian Conspiracy, we acknowledge that eternity is not long enough, nor hell hot enough, to punish such miscreants."—The Express, February, 1867.

p401.    Anecdote of Euler, told by Arago, in the Chamber of Deputies, 1836.
    "Euler," he said, "was eminently pious. One Sunday afternoon, a celebrated preacher of one of the Berlin Churches said to him:—'Alas! the cause of religious truth is lost—faith no longer exists.  Would you believe it,' said the preacher, 'I pictured creation in all its poetry, in all its marvellous beauty, I cited the philosophers of old, I quoted the Bible itself; half my audience slept, the others left the Church!' 'Try the following experiment,' said Euler—'instead of quoting Greek philosophers to convey an idea of the vastness of creation, tell your audience of the facts Science reveals to us.  Tell them that the sun is 1,200,000 greater than our earth.  Tell them that the planets are worlds; that Jupiter is fourteen hundred times larger than our earth; describe to them the wonders of Saturn's ring.  Tell them of the stars, and convey an idea of their distance by the scale of light.  Tell them that light traverses eighty-thousand leagues per second.  Tell them that there exists not a star whose light reaches us in less than three years.  Tell them that, from several, the light only attains our hemisphere in thirty years—and then, from positive facts pass on to the great probabilities of scientific discovery.  Say, for instance, that certain stars might be, visible millions of years after their annihilation, because the light they emit requires several millions of years to reach our earth, etc., etc.  Next Sunday, the great Euler awaited his friend's arrival with impatience.  He came, but depressed and profoundly afflicted.  'What!' exclaimed Euler, 'what has happened?' 'Ah!' replied his friend, 'I am most unfortunate.  My congregation forgot the respect due to God's holy temple—do you believe it? they cheered me.'"

p406.    See the Monthly Paper of the National Society, for June, 1873.

p411.    While we in England have a very expensive government, we have escaped numerous evils for many years past by having a very worthy and intelligent woman for our executive ruler; aided also as she was for many years by a very intelligent and worthy husband; yet it requires very little foresight to perceive that there are evils arising from kingly power, and aristocratic rule to be dreaded in the future, beyond what Englishmen have had yet to grapple with.  Even in Republican America the appointment of her President is a gigantic evil.  For what a revolution it occasions in the peaceful pursuits of men; what contentious feelings and apprehensions it awakens, and what immense means of bribing are afforded him, in giving him the right of appointing almost every officer in the state.

p413-1.    We spend also £25,500,000 for interest on the debt of former wars.

p413-2.    There are no fewer than 6,220,000 men under arms in Europe, and the yearly cost of men and armaments is upwards of £500,000,000.—Speech of I. W. Pease, M.P., May 21, 1867.

    Russia's contribution to the French Exhibition was a monster cannon, every shot it fired costing 5000 francs, and warranted to kill 500 men per shot.—Star, March 30th, 1867.

    A formidable cannon, weighing 100,000 lbs., has been cast in Prussia for the Great Exhibition, but its weight has given rise to some difficulty in transporting it, the railway directors being afraid of the damage it might do to the line.—Public Opinion, March 30th, 1867.

    The Chassepot ball inflicts a small hole on entering the body, but on the opposite side it tears away the flesh to the size of a man's hat.—Star, August 27th, 1868.

p417.    Two kind friends at Manchester also sought to procure a publisher for me in that town.

p426.    An heroic resistance on the part of some, defiance by others, and a sad and reckless ending, after great sacrifice of life; and to be conquered, after all!

p427.    The Times of Feb. 21st, 1859, said that the cost of our own army is just £10,000 a day. Think, working men, what this sum would do for the improvement of our country.

p436.    While France pays in land tax £23,509,000, out of a general taxation of about £41,509,000, England only pays land tax to the amount of £2,350,000, out of a general taxation of £76,617,000―a convincing proof that the landowners of this country have had the making of the laws.

p 459.    There are, say 6,000,000 of men eligible to vote.  This number, divided by 300, gives 20,000 to each member.

p474.    The Committee understand that the daily payment of Members of Parliament has operated beneficially in Canada; but they fear that such mode of payment holds out a motive for lengthening the sessions unnecessarily; and if the time of sitting is limited by law, it may lead to too hasty legislation, both of which evils are obviated by an annual payment.



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